Souls need the help of the living to succeed in retracing the path of the acoustic world. Music corresponds to heaven; rituals correspond to earth. Marius Schneider’s extraordinary journey into the mythology of sound continues.
My translation from the Italian edition of “La Musica Primitiva” by Marius Schneider, Adelphi Spa publisher, Milano, 1992:
Ceremonies draw their Effectiveness from Music
“He who has ether as his basis, hearing as realm, sight as intelligence and who knows the Spirit, the peak of pure beings, is a true sage… And the spirit of hearing” (Brhadäranyaka Upanişad). He has acquired the supreme understanding because the essence of the universe, being of a sound nature, can only be fully grasped by the sense of hearing. In this way, man can even reach the gods. But to work with sounds, man must also be able to imitate the gods. To exercise a creative action, he must produce luminous music in which the object whose existence he desires appears visibly. Before it can become a concrete body, the essence of the coveted object must be visibly revealed in an acoustic image. “Syāvāśva Arvanānasa held a ritual session; he was dragged into the wilderness; he saw (the rain in) a ritual melody; with it, he poured rain”. “Devātithi wandered hungry with his son; he found some urvāru fruits in the forest; he approached them spitefully with a ritual melody: they immediately turned into cows for him
dappled” (Tāndya Mahā Brāhmana).
The magician can only see that luminous music. As for the other adepts of the cult, the visual part of the sound images is communicated to them through the rites. What mystically takes place in the song is represented concretely by the rites, which are the material expression of the song. The melody gives it substance; the rites give it a concrete aspect. In the Historical Memoirs of Ssu – ma Ch’ien we read: “Music and rites manifest the nature of heaven and earth. They penetrate the very virtues of supernatural intellects. They bring spirits down from above and spirits out from below; they realize the substance of all beings. Music operates within, and rituals are established from without. Music corresponds to heaven; rituals correspond to earth. Music unifies (image and sound), rites (them) differentiate”.
The Interdependence of Heaven and Earth
This music, made visible by the rites, must create harmony between heaven and earth. When religion supplants magic and sacrifice to the god and replaces sacrifice to the god, music is primarily an offering or homage to the god. In this case, the rites become increasingly independent of the music, which often does nothing more than “accompany” pantomimes. On the other hand, Magic uses music to establish a good balance between heaven and earth. It works above all with the sympathetic sound, that is, by “symphony”. Given the interdependence of heaven and earth, magicians do not feel absolute submission to heaven because they consider life on earth to be a complementary part of universal harmony. (If, despite this feeling of equality, they feel a profound respect for heaven, it is because they believe that rituals are an essential element of the earth and courtesy the only permissible and fruitful form of any relationship). According to Chou Li, a public official beats the drum to combat the rigors of cold and excessive heat. His action serves only to maintain a just and correct balance. In primitive civilizations, which mainly address ancestors or spirits, the rites are more plastic, and the symphonic procedure is generally more warlike, direct, and often very simple. Since each spirit has its song, he addresses it with it. When flattered, the rites express the corresponding gestures. A material offering accompanies the song offer. When the wizard threatens the spirits, some war pantomimes make that chant visible.
It’s my song.” She then offers her services to him based on a mutual aid pact. Men are needed by gods or spirits, who are caverns of resonance that need to sing and hear singing. If men don’t take care of them, the spirits can become dangerous; if, on the other hand, you feed them with their favorite songs, they become great protectors. A good spirit is characterized by willing submission to sacrifice. His sweet or plaintive voice begs men to give him the sonorous food he needs. Evil spirits are souls refractory to sacrifice; too tied to the earth, they have not been able to regain the immateriality and sound purity of a real dead man. They have horrific or deceptive voices, make disorderly noises, and feed partly on the sound-stuff of the souls of the living they torment. They are chased away with the sound of sacrifice, above all with the sound of ancient materials and metal, or using a counter-noise which, catching them unawares, frightens them. During a lunar eclipse, a deafening din is unleashed to repel the spirits that seek to devour the star. The sleep of men is protected by splitting the night with the songs of the shell. Men who are particularly threatened because of their high rank or position wear clothes or belts with bells. Another means of combating evil spirits is absolute silence, which prevents these evildoers from orienting themselves while looking for their victims. The two antagonistic forces of the universe, expressed by a pair of gods or by a being of a dual nature, very often manifest themselves in the spirits through their evolution over time. The same spirit is now good and endowed with a sweet and plaintive voice, now evil and loud, depending on whether or not he has undergone the sacrifice. It can manifest in the same melody, but its sonority will now be ugly and pleasant.
The Funeral Rites
Given that the dead are songs or are on their way to “the house of songs”, it is not surprising that great space is left for music during funeral rites. When a soul prepares to retrace the path of the acoustic world from which it exited at its incarnation in a human body, it strives to eliminate the matter that served as support on earth. You can achieve this intent only with sound sacrifice, but, to successfully carry out this enterprise, the soul needs the help of the living. The Jaiminiya Upaniad informs us that the chanting of the Sāmaveda releases the soul of a dead man from her mortal coil. Among primitive peoples, the family of a dying person sometimes tries to come to the aid of the soul by imitating or reinforcing the sound of the last moan, that is, the last sacrifice of the earth’s vital breath. Even the violent cries that the Dogon utter at the end of their dirges express the last gasps of the person in agony. The more the soul has remained attached to material things, the more it needs songs. However, it is always necessary to recall the soul towards the altar of sacrifice, subject it to that ritual operation that will help it recover its acoustic nature fully, or create the sound vehicle it cannot do without—crossing the mythical mountain. According to the Dogon, the creator kills men only when the souls, recalled by the utterance of their names, are placed on a sacrificial altar. Only then are the hairs of the corpse cut (symbols of the sound string?), as they form the last material support of the soul. Only in front of the corpse can a relative or an intimate friend dare to imitate the individual song of the deceased, to strengthen the sound substance of the deceased. Those songs often repeat the name (sound substance) of the deceased. The mourners embroider only concise texts of praise or regret, always centered on that name.
To recall the soul, Li Chi prescribes that men climb onto the roof of the house, where they must pronounce the name of the deceased and cry out by leaping towards the north (the land of the Mor-Pti). He recommends shouting the name the dead man was called as a child. According to chapters xvIII-XX of the Book of the Dead, the ancient Egyptians placed on the heads of mummies “the crown of the intoned voice,” which allowed the dead to recite the sacred book victoriously. Then they “gave their mouths back” with incantations and reminded them of their names. The Altai shaman approaches the corpse and summons the soul to the sound of the drum by describing a spiral around the dead. As soon as the soul has arrived, he catches it between his instrument and stick and smashes it to the ground with the drum. Then he beats out the dull, muffled rhythms that allow the soul to enter the realm of death. The ceremonies that recall the soul with the utterance of its name and then enclose it in a shell, in a horn, or in a vase that is stopped up, burned, or sunk in a river try to give the dead person at the same time a support and a resonance center.
Often a musical instrument is placed in the grave, or rattles are hung from the deceased’s ankles, calves, or wrists. In India, funeral music is sometimes performed with instruments corresponding to the caste to which the deceased belonged. ln China, junior officers are stripped of the zither, as such an instrument is only suited to the highest-ranking military. In India and Indonesia, a cotton thread is handed to the soul (symbol of sound?), and the gong and the drum are beaten as they will help it overcome the great obstacles it will encounter on its way. The Bororò (America) represents the dead with a man covered in leaves which, placed behind the singer, shakes two rattles and performs his macabre dance. This done, he summons two more dead by playing a flute. Soon the ghosts come and take him away to the sound of the rumble while the properties of the deceased burn. The Mangia (Africa) put an assegai in the hand of the deceased. With a string, they tie his thumbs to the tam-tam, which causes a slight oscillation of the body when the instrument is played, thus making the corpse participate in the sound and dance. Surely many shouts and instrumental music also put dangerous spirits to flight. Unfortunately, the observations made in this regard are still very scarce. It is essential to remain on good terms with the dead since they are the intermediaries between gods and men. They are the ones who send disease and drought or prosperity and rain, depending on the attention men pay them.
The Ritual Songs of Birth and Circumcision
According to a widespread belief, the soul of a child enters the fetus from the mother’s navel. This is why in Australia, the future father sings on the navel of his pregnant wife. So long as there cannot be more men on earth than there are names or songs available, the inhabitants of Haiti prepare the existence of a child by singing his name even before he is born.
In China, when a crown prince is born, the music master identifies, with the help of the tuning fork, which of the five notes is the one on which the newborn cries to be able to establish its name (ming), which will determine its destiny ( ming, with the same pronunciation but with a different character). The Dualas recognize the ancestor incarnated in him from the child’s first cry. When a male has reached the age of puberty, he changes his voice; this is the most substantial expression of the change that has taken place in him. The rite that accompanies and confirms the change of voice is circumcision.
During this operation, often preceded by burial rites (of infancy) or isolation of the candidates, the voice of a monster appears in the form of a rumble which devours the “dead” children and then vomits them onto the earth, transformed into circumcised men, initiated and given a new voice. According to the Nutkas (America), that gluttonous god with a bent leg lives in a rock. His voice is generally that of thunder. In New Guinea, the god is sometimes represented by a long hut in the shape of a monster in which some men make rhombuses echo. In Australia, the voice of the god is also imitated by the scream of the animal that corresponds to it. In California, the rhombuses are accompanied by some rattles that the gods have specifically recommended for this ceremony. At the Bambara (Africa), the ancestors shout through an iron wind instrument that simultaneously ends with two horns, an idol, and a trumpet, and they freeze with fright. While the drums thunder, the god’s helpers repeat the divine words more articulately and understandably but are drowned out by the sound of a whistle.
In southern Africa and Malaysia, the candidates sit on the drum; in other regions, shells, flutes, or scrapers are used to free the voice of the greedy god. Instruments that do not emit that voice cover the candidates’ possible cries during the painful operation. This precautionary measure is important since if the young people let out a scream, the sacrifice could lose all its effectiveness. They must neither sing nor shout because it is assumed that, at that moment, their sound substance is congested. Furthermore, the cries of pain or anger could be harmful or interpreted as a manifestation of refusal of the sacrifice.
On the other hand, the songs and shouts are obligatory when the sacrifice is concluded, when the sound substance is freed. Only an individual who sacrifices himself can sing during a ceremony; in this case, his singing is the sacrifice. But if the rite is performed by another person (the operator), he can sing only after undergoing the sacrifice. Circumcision is therefore preceded by a long training that enables young people to silently bear the most atrocious pains. Among the Chokwe (Africa), during the period of confinement, they are allowed to sing “the song of fear” of the greedy god. But eventually, they fall to the ground “dead” and lie there until a man revives them by lashing them with feathers or tree branches so they can be escorted to the operator. All these ceremonies are intended to give the boy the virile voice, i.e., the set of a man’s behavior.
They have no specific sexual character; they teach candidates the use of songs and ritual instruments, initiate them into the laws and customs of the tribe, and instill in them a sense of responsibility. Their initiation into sexual life is but a prelude to marriage. Similarly, many agricultural ceremonies have no specific sexual character and are often limited to attracting the spring heat. In his Description of Tibet, the Reverend Father Hyacinthe writes: “When a mountain is covered with deep snow, one must be careful not to make noise, not to utter the slightest word, otherwise ice and hail would fall rapidly and in abundance”. The ancient Chinese trampled the earth to summon the heat and cried loudly as they performed winter dances. According to Li Chi, that music was to imitate the murmur and sudden crash of thunder that caused all beings to be born. Among many primitive peoples, men shout, while women make high-pitched sounds by placing the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth and making it vibrate rapidly. In Annam, a boy, and a girl, each stretched out on a bed, indulge in literary and musical merry-go-rounds. Then, the drum that separates the two beds must call the first thunder of the year.
The Seasonal Rites
Since the “new skin” that nature puts on in spring is the work of the dead, the ancient Mexicans also covered their drums with new skins from sacrifices. The songs of the gods dead rising from their skins ring from winter to spring. In India, during the winter solstice, the self-sacrifice of the gods was imitated. An animal’s skin was placed in a hole dug in the earth, and the animal’s tail was used to beat that “drum”. On the same occasion, the Eskimos whistle going from west to east, wave rattles and eagle feathers, and beat their circular drums to awaken “supernatural forces”. When spring arrives, we see tools of all sorts used to stimulate the growth of plants. The Menominee shake their rattles. The Kiwais spin their rhombuses, and the Kaitish (Australia) adorn them with feathers. In other continents, the conch or the flute is played.
The star that especially comes into play is the moon. When it is waning (second transformer or god of war), it takes possession of the human souls that rise in the humid mists towards the Milky Way and leads them to the black moon (god of the dead), a star symbol of the cave of sacrifice. (Instead of the moon, we also find the “black clouds” of rain mentioned). But the black moon, invisible to men, regenerates souls and, when it grows again, sends them back to earth transformed into the rain. According to the Kauşi taki Upanişad and many other traditions, the moon interrogates souls and sends back to earth only those who cannot answer correctly. Therefore, the souls destined for reincarnation fall from the tree of death (black moon) and sing when the rain fertilizes the earth and women feel pregnant. Fertility ceremonies, therefore, often take place in front of the tombs. In New Caledonia, a dead person is dug up, and the skeleton hanging from a tree is watered with water. In Nigeria, a dead man’s head represents a cloud of sound. In Vedic rites, the rain is enclosed in the head of the sacrificial horse.
One also turns to “rain stones” inhabited by the dead or wet hair from a corpse. Generally speaking, the rites try to attract the waters with analogical acts and with a piece of music that imitates the desired phenomena. The rain herald animals are imitated, feathers are waved, the earth or the victims of the sacrifice are watered, a bamboo filled with water is broken, or the image of the water dragon is exhibited. Tools vary according to civilizations. Diamonds, shells, rattles, bells, fifes, drums, gongs, and even lutes are used. Rumbles, drums, and gongs (the “bronze drum” adorned with copper) generally imitate thunder. The fifes symbolize lightning, the flutes “cleave the air” with rattles, adorned with feathers or carved in the shape of a bird, and the sound of rain is imitated. Among the Lango (Africa), the dual nature of the god of thunder is represented by a double bell, which is set in motion by blowing on it. The Li Chi tells us that to obtain rain in the summer, one must perform sacrifices and make all the instruments resonate, accompanying them with the corresponding pantomimes. But often, the instruments merely punctuate the songs without imitating a natural noise.
The action exercised by these rites is considered as the shout of lightning, the sun, fire, or winds launched against the clouds, the moon, or the lake inside the cave. With a scream, Indra forces the entrance to Ahi’s cave and frees the mooing cows that the golden-haired demon keeps in his cave. The wind gods accompanying Indra attack the clouds with their hissings and <pour the sonorous rain as libations. The rites, therefore, imitate this example by forcing the entrance of a hut or by symbolizing that hierogamy with the marriage of two dolls. According to a rather widespread belief, the god of thunder sleeps a lot and gets angry when too much noise is made. Rudely awakened, he lets out terrible cries that herald the rain, producing a whirling wind and thunder. In agreement with the wife of this sleepy-headed god, men do not hesitate to disturb him if they need water. In those rites, the creative power of the god’s voice, which is said to have only one leg, is sometimes symbolized on earth by a phallic stone.
Although that strange physical conformation represents a divine body and the very prototype of the human body, it is not impossible that the drum, mounted on a single pole and played by this god, also has a similar meaning. Even Indra sometimes appears as a one-footed goat.” When Yü hopped on one leg, she imitated pheasants whose drum beat, produced by their wings, “resembled the jolt a woman feels the moment she becomes pregnant (M. Granet)”. Now, the mouth organ, whose thirteen pipes symbolize the pheasant’s wings, was the work of Nükua, the inventor of marriage. But even when legends or rites attribute sexual acts to the gods, one must never lose sight that those images are only metaphors. The gods are songs, and the souls they free ride their songs, which, materializing, penetrate the rain and the seed of men to fertilize the earth and women.
The Marriage Rites
Generally speaking, marriage rites do not offer much musical interest. Rather, the power of sound is evoked in the pre-wedding rites. Among the Boanoro (New Guinea), the daughter-in-law is deflowered by a relative in front of the drum and flute of the house of ceremonies. The Cuna (America) wraps two flutes in a leaf to verify the virginity of the betrothed. Innocence is proven if the instruments do not move when unwinding the wrapping. For love spells, the inhabitants of the Solomon Islands use the panpipe. Kiwais use a drum in which they hide a leaf that has covered the sexual parts of the desired woman. In Hawaii, a musical bow induces the woman to leave her hut.
The Rites of Healing
As we have already said, the one who brings rain is also a doctor. But, while the rain ceremonies materialize the divine songs, music therapy tries to safeguard and strengthen the pure sound substance of man. It reaches its apogee when it strives to purify and increase the normal volume of that vital substance to procure immortality for man. To this end, the Aśvins (Vedic physicians), whose horses make water flow by striking the “stone clouds” with their hooves, have invented a medicine that cures the blindness of men subject to the illusions of the senses. The yogi who sings and sees the syllable AUM knows that the vowel A, with which it begins, is the sound of the earth, U is the intermediate space, M touches the sky and “brings down the pillar which holds up the sky” and separates the two worlds. Music therapy parallels rain ceremonies in this extreme form but in the opposite direction. These materialize luminous music, music therapy tries to bring matter back to its sound and light origin and to restore man’s original acoustic purity. The water from rain rituals is fertilizing, but when it falls excessively, it soils the earth and men and brings disease. The water of the medicinal rites purifies and washes away sins but destroys physical vitality when it brings men too close to the gods. Physical evil is generally believed to be caused by consciously or unconsciously committed mistakes, which place man at the mercy of a spirit whose broken voice feeds on sucking the sound substance of the human body. Then the soul does not abandon the body definitively but is often absent for long hours. Illness or sin increases man’s inert matter and reduces sound substance. Every healing rite is, therefore, an expiatory sacrifice that purifies both the sick person and the demon of the disease. Both need to get rid of the hindrances created by matter. To this end, the patient will sing his medicine song, and the spirit will be sacrificed by confessing his name to free his acoustic forces.
When the great Manitou was on earth, he gave to the Chippewa and Papago songs, drums, and rattles, which had the virtue of polishing evil spirits and healing the sick. The Yuchi designate their medical school, where each member receives his healing song, with the term hempino, which means “to sing”. It is often limited to making wild cries by whipping the air with tree branches to combat epidemics. For individual treatment, massages are given, the patient’s skin is sucked, or medicinal herbs are placed on the sore. Like rain rites, eagle feathers (thunderbirds) are fluttered and attached to musical instruments. The Uitoto doctor pins feathers to his hair “to see better.” But all these processes become effective only with chants. Before offering his client a drink, the Creek shaman (America) blows the magical power of his song into the liquid with a tube. With the songs now threatening and flattering, the evil spirit is induced to leave the sick person’s body or take residence directly under the epidermis to better listen to the song. The doctor, at that point, will be able to catch him, drive him away, or lead him to sacrifice.
Since each sick person is a half-dead person whose soul (which wanders out of the body to escape the spirit of sickness) is under constant threat of being devoured by a spirit, the ceremony often begins with a soul calling. The situation is similar to what we have seen in funeral rites: a person cannot be helped if his sound substance is absent. In the Loyalty Islands, the sound cave through which the soul is summoned to the body is a nose flute. The Menominee evoke it using an ordinary flute and suck the disease with a bamboo cane. The musical instrument and the healing apparatus have similar shapes. The shaman of the Kachin (Asia), after fuming his cloak, drum, and stick, begins to drum very slowly to bring together the auxiliary spirits. Then he lets out a violent scream and, shaking his head, begins to chant and repeat over and over again the name of the lost soul. This done, he rests the drum on his head. His singing becomes increasingly dark until his voice has reached the dull and grave timbre that allows the soul to enter the drum that vibrates in front of the doctor’s mouth. At that moment, the doctor’s voice is drowned out by sobs.
The Samoyeds of the Jenissei blow the soul found in this way into the patient’s ear. Sometimes the shaman lures souls into a hollow bone. The Buryats tie a red thread to a tree and attach the other end to an arrow. The symbol of the vibrating string constitutes the way through which the patient’s soul can re-enter his body. To recognize the demons that have caused the disease, the doctor first calls upon his auxiliary spirits through song, drum, or gong; he then tries to diagnose in the evoked soul’s presence. First, it looks for the name (the damaged sound substance) of the spirit of the disease since “every disease flees when it hears its name or its voice sung”: at that point, it feels threatened because it sees itself revealed and recognized. The Dualas say she is frightened by her voice, like a witch who suddenly sees her hideous face in a river (mirror). Among the Kavirondo (Africa), the doctor’s assistants sing and shake rattles until the patient begins to tremble and moan: this means that the rhythm of the harmful spirit has been found. When the Kintak-Bong (Asia) shaman treats a sick person in his hut, the choir in front of the door helps the doctor go into ecstasy and find the demon. He then repeats over and over again the name of the disease spirit.
Since every spirit that causes disease has a song or is a personal song, the doctor must know many melodies and vocal timbres capable of imitating those beings’ broken voices (damaged or insufficient sound substance). To offer them this vehicle, in which he will later imprison them, he sings their melodies, now in the ugly and horrible voice that corresponds to them, now in a sonorous or well-rhythmic voice, showing the beauty that such melodies could have if they decided to sacrifice their excessive adherence to matter and to become genuinely sonorous and benevolent spirits. If this tactic fails, an attempt is made to expel the spirit with noise and violence. Then the “medication” in the form of syllables (hi, ni, ho, ho) or insults is “hurled” from the doctor’s mouth like an arrow. Sometimes doctors, knowing only one melody, are so specialized that they only cure a certain disease. However, musical instruments are also used. In great civilizations, sympathetic homeopathy is often practiced with stringed instruments. The Kauśika-sütra recommends ingesting the string of the Piśala lute, left to soak in honey and curdled milk for the three days of the black moon. According to al -Kindī, the highest string of the lute (do), dipped in yellow, corresponds to the bile, which increases by fighting the pituitary.
The blood string, colored red (G), strengthens the blood and is against black bile. The black string (earth, king) increases black bile and calms the blood. The water cord (la), dyed white, increases the pituitary and fights bile. Alongside the homeopathic process, we, therefore, also find an allopathic treatment. In Australia, the wood of the turbot is scraped off, and the sick person is given it to eat. In California, the flute is played, or rhombuses are resonated. In Tibet, conch shells, trumpets, or bells are used. The Tonga (Africa) twirl the rattles on the diseased part of the body. The most common instruments are drums and rattles.
The doctor of the Kazakh-Kyrgyz imitates all the sounds on the circular drum, reinforced with owl feathers, from the buzzing of a fly to the noise of a storm. He swirls the sacrificial animal’s lungs over and around the sick person’s head, imitating any animals that might have caused harm. Among the Uananas (America), the doctor blows tobacco smoke on his client, massages his body, and shakes a rattle with his left hand. Once this is done, he flings the disease into the air with a sharp hand movement. In other cases, the disease is thrown back into the water or onto trees and animals. However, healing can often only be obtained when the doctor offers his body to the disease; the shaman must ritually eat the demon. When the female doctors of the Tinggyan (Philippines) beat a metal plate with shells (from the property of a dead person), they sing and beg the spirit of the disease to enter their bodies. After recalling the sick person’s soul, the Kwakiutl shaman (America) passes the soul and the evil into his body by sucking his client’s skin.
Then he “vomits” the soul and returns it to the owner by blowing on the fountain of the patient’s skull. Since the soul is now safe, he spits out the disease, grabs it, and offers it to his rattle, always hungry, which swallows the evil spirit. When the Papagos have identified the animal that caused the disease, they sacrifice an animal from the same family; during the cure, the doctor’s assistants, who sing the melody of the family of the animals that caused the disease, are forced to eat the meat of the beast, while the doctor rubs the patient’s body with the tail of the sacrificed animal. This ritual meal, with which the doctor, his assistants, or the rattles eat (sacrifice) the spirit of the disease to transform it into a beneficial or harmless spirit, is very characteristic. According to the mythology of the Papago, all diseases come from the feathers that <the wizard of the earth» (transformer) wore on his head at the beginning of creation.
But those same quills could also heal all diseases. The Chippewas say that each animal has created a disease and a medicine capable of fighting it. The same being brings happiness or misfortune, depending on whether one manages to sacrifice it and make it resonate or not. Illness is a spirit that, while suffering from its attachment to matter and the ugliness of its voice, tries to escape the sound sacrifice and, to feed itself, prefers to continue gnawing at the sound substance of men. The magician’s strength consists in identifying him, extracting his name, and forcing him to make a sacrifice that will revive his sound substance.
Illness is a spirit that you can grasp as a person. There is no great difference between such a spirit and a criminal. When the cause of evil is a real man, a sorcerer, or a murderer, the process is identical: first, one tries to know the name of the criminal who not only caused the disease but who is the disease. Unable to catch the criminal, the Kurnai (Australia) burn his clothes while shouting his name.
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