for example when some metallic body is amalgamated, and when you want a metal to be reduced in powder or calx form, one make mercury exalating to fire, and the calcined metal is on the crucible bottom, as if you want to reduce some metal in calx by means of sulfur, one calcines together and let sulphur to exhale, but evaporations are done when you move out, for example, the superfluous moisture from salts and purified extracts of many solutions and filtrations, to reduce them in the form and substance necessary for their conservation.
To Extinguish is to plunge a red hot matter into cold water: it is practiced primarily on metals and minerals, either to make them brittle, as we can see about stones extinction in water, or to give them some virtue under the liquor in which they are extinguished, as can be seen in tuthie extinguished by rose water or fennel, or the same giving any virtue in the water, as for steel extinction.
Extracting is to separate from animals and plants their most vulgar and earthy parties by means of menstruums suitable for preparing the substances artists want: for example, removing the resinous material from Gialappa by the spirit of wine also full of subtle sulfur, so these two easily join. There are also countless other extractions, wherein it is necessary the artist takes care about it, and does with menstruums appropriate to substances one aims to extract.
Fermentation is reducing the volatile parts of a mixed in spirit or from potential to act and unwrap them from their vulgar and earthy parts, as one may observe in fermented liquors and particularly in wine passed fermentation, which easily gives off its inflammable spirit with a minimum fire; it must on the contrary keeps spiritual parts together with subtle suphurs (2) and reduces to honey texture, which is called sapping, without nothing lose of its substance but a flavorless water, since volatile and active parts are so much retained by fixed salts that they take wing only by means of fire strength or by fermentation action: it has a lot to do with digestion, but while the last one is performed by means of outer warm, the other one on the contrary is done by itself, and a natural and inner mixed fire.
Filtering is quite carrying its explanation; the most convenient filtration is brought by grey paper in the funnel glass.
Fixation is detaining a volatile body, so it it can withstand fire; this operation is accomplished by means of fixed bodies. We can experience salt armoniac-salarmeniac (3), which although very volatile, mixed with quicklime, is set so that it is most resistant to fire violence of by which he had been abducted if he were alone.
Freezing is to cause bodies, which had melted before, hardening with cold, this is practiced on minerals, metals and salts which are purified by the violence of melting fire, and when they are exposed to cold air, they freeze and harden, and this is also observed in animals fat, gums and plants balsams, which are liquefied by fire and their vulgar parts when separated are harden by exposure to freezing cold.
Fumigation is to receive a suspended mixed vapors of one or more other mixed for calcining or to correct it, or for him to be impressed a new quality, as for example one hangs lead laminae onto mercury, which we exhale in a crucible on fire to calcine said laminae: one does receive the sulfur smoke spread on a paper to repress its activity: it is to receive the well washed moss, smoke of aromatics to imprint their smell and quality.
Laver or Washing is removing by means of water vulgar parts of some mixed; one wash also to separate and let move to water surface the most subtle minerals part and let the most vulgar and earthy to the bottom, as for example litharge preparation.
Levigation is make a mixed in fine powder on porphyry or sea shell: this preparation is exerted on the strongest mixed, and all minerals.
To Liquefy is unique to animal fats, such as wax, gums, resins, which are liquidated by a moderate heat, and regain their consistency in the cold.
Melting belongs to metallurgy and it is an operation which makes metals streaming by means of fire, which may be moderate or strong according to metal or mineral nature and hardness.
Mortification is to destroy the outer form of a mixed, what is done to mercury by stripping its fluency and movement: one also mortifies spirits and salts mixing them, since one corrects the acrimony of the other.
Precipitation is separating the dissolved mixed, and let it drop in powder at the bottom of dissolvent: