In Cabala Mineralis a very simple practical handwritten notation helps clear the three salts enigma about Mercurius Duplicatus, for us to be finally entitled to enter the Main Work.
Cabala Mineralis is the title of a London British Museum manuscript highly positioned at n. 5235 and apparently signed by Rabbi Simeon Ben Cantara, who maintains the good Hebraic habit of generous dissemination.
The picture’s dimension will grant us a comfortable reading of the latin undernote: “ Duae, ad plus Tres partes, Mercuri nostri, liquant unam partem luna vel solis vulgi subtilitati…” That’s to say: “two, or three at maximum, parts of our Mercurius dissolve one part of vulgar Luna-Moon (metallic silver) or Sol-Sun (metallic gold), but already in Mercurius or in spiritual form. Namely, they have to be dissolved in Mercurius and then repeatedly volatilized till a complete Mercurius is reached (1).
Of course, metallic silver and gold cannot be put in pieces inside Mercurius Philosophorum to be dissolved. Before that, they have to be reduced in “ rust”, namely a salt of any chemical form. Alchemy is not interested in molecular purity. Just simply to the amount of Secret Fire inside.
But, before going any further, how can we be so sure this Cabala Mineralis vessel, with a dark substance inside, is really about Mercurius Duplicatus (2) or Main Work beginning? It unquestionably represents the Mercurius Philosophorum, as can be seen from the detail of the air tubes and caduceus (this time the state of due filigree can be avoided). We, therefore, should keep in mind that the honeymoon of the new couple must take place in a death setting. Actually, our second putrefaction or blackness, as Rosarium Jacobi masterly puts on display in the conception-putrefaction phase. See an Opus Magnum scheme.
Jean d’Espagnet, in his “Traicté de l’Ouvrage Secret de la Philosophie d’Hermes” or Treatise on Hermes Philosophy secret work, in appendix of “ La Philosophie Naturelle restabliée” Paris 1651 page 273 paragraph 25, writes:” Que l’on ne se trompe pas en adjoutant à deux un troisième… one has not to get it wrong adding a third to two”. Then d’Espagnet goes on comparing Mercurius Duplicatus to a marriage: “… a marriage is established between two persons, if one looks for a third one, then that comes committing adultery”.
Too frequently Alchemy, instead, comes by with a third salt. As a matter of fact, the theory is a thing and practice is something else. And, no wonder, hermetic symbolism raises from that confusion. Compare with Hollandus’s “Opera Mineralia, sive De Lapide Philosophico” to have an idea of real laboratory work, though in the renaissance period. Thus in an ancient chemistry environment.
We have plenty of images of Mercurius Duplicatus, although it has been a closed secret for centuries. The most used method to keep it out of sight is its confusion with Mercurius Philosophorum. In fact, the two iconographies are recurrently forced to appear not disconnected. In Alchemy hardly an allegory or a symbol is not subjected to the rule of three, thus three salts are expected to stand at least for three different concepts.
In fact Mercurius Philosophorum too, a volatile Mercurius out of Materia Tertia/Salts volatilization but made more stabilized, can be defined as a man-woman (3) product. A hermaphrodite. A Rebis, from “Res Bina” or two things. Former volatile, now fixed, still solving. This is our Universal Solvent to solve our metals indeed. When volatile is called Mercurius, when fixed is simply called Salt, or Azoth (4). Very often Mercurius becoming more fixed is defined as Sulphur and consequently, again, Salt.
They are just one thing, but too often symbolism deals with Mercurius, Sulphur, and Salt as they were three of them. Symbola Aurea Mensae engraving number four, though very famed, represents one the most confusing Rebis or two things in conventional representations. To get things hardier is the appearance of an attending bishop. So we have three individualisms, standing for the same thing, in the case of Mercurius Philosophorum, but three separate salts in the case of Mercurius Duplicatus. Canseliet presented this image in his “Etude diverses de Symbolisme Hermétique et de Pratique Philosophale” 1964, stating the bishop is the indispensable salt to celebrate the ceremony and unify the other two salts. Of course, he omitted to say if we are before Mercurius Philosophorum or Duplicatus. As a matter of fact, this image is considered one of the most brain-burning of all alchemic imaginary.
Rosarium Jacobi engraving number 6 provides us with a conjunction or coitus phase, antecedent to that one on conception above, in fact, we are in a setting previous to the static putrefactive bed, but equal to Symbola Aurea Mensae. What’s more is something suggesting an additional character, quite a supplementary water stream. Hypnerotomachia Poliphili which is not only a gorgeous renaissance burin masterpiece but, as Sabine Stuart Chevalier points out, a complete great work layout, puts forward a child urinating over a black phase. An accepted explication is that some Secret Fire ( which can actually be extracted from children’s urine, and it goes without saying that it becomes our Mercurius) can be added during putrefaction to “enhance”. The motto on the lintel is “black” in ancient greek. It can be of some interest to know that ancient greeks had a very poor lexicon for colors. Indeed Homer described blood color as black.
Another symbolical issue is the theory of providing salt for each Spiritus, Anima et Corpus forming the new body or Trinity. A picture taken from Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum, by an Anonymous philosopher, roughly represents all that. It is a pity that in Alchemy very often 1 + 1 is equal to three, as we can evince from Philosophia Reformata second series, where Spirit plus Anima or Soul is equivalent to a new Body. Very volatile indeed. But nothing is more accessible than finding new matter for a body, in Alchemy.
Then there is the theory of salt for each Main Work color, that’s to say black, white, and red (5). Which can be considered very close to the previous Spirit, Soul, and Body. As you can see in this seventeenth-century engraving from Cabala Speculum Artis & Naturae or better known as Spiegel der Kunst und Natur by Michelspachers. Hermetic symbolism grasped all the opportunities Alchemy could offer.
A final, but not to be underestimated, salt to be added to grand total is the breastfeeding for our new body, a Virgin’s Milk for our Mercurius Duplicatus. We have already known that Mercuri Philosophorum is not always just lovely young girls, as a matter of fact, they may assume two old men’s appearance. Especially when putrefaction is involved. As Aurora Consurgens provides us on the left.
Even the mercurial triplicity or triple density has been taken for a clue towards the three salts enigma. This Nazari colored version, on the right, is very evocative.
Now we are ready to placate and appease our mind bringing to an end Cabala Mineralis undernote. So: ” Duae, ad plus Tres partes, Mercuri nostri, liquant unam partem luna vel solis , vulgi subtilitati, et corpus unum sunt (6), spongiosum, inseparabile, Quod vocatur luna nostra, vel sol noster, non vulgi
… per Mercurium Aquilarum Quinque
… per Mercurium Aquilarum Septem”.
So we have seen more than one explication about Mercurius Duplicatus counting and calculation. I think more exhaustive details could be a disrespectful abuse of millennial alchemical silence on “Weights” or proportions. But let’s draw to a close with Rabbi Simeon ben Cantara’s liberality and translate him: “Two, or three at maximum, parts of our Mercurius dissolve one part of vulgar Luna (metallic silver) or Sun (metallic gold), but already in Mercurius or spiritual form. Namely repeatedly volatilized till Mercurius is reached. They become a unique body, sponge-like (pay close attention to this attribute. Perhaps Terrae Foliatae have something to do with it) and inseparable, which are called our Moon or our Sun ( metallic silver and gold first reduced in powder and then dissolved in Mercurius, so not vulgar”.
Then five times sublimated in Mercurius Philosophorum or five Eagles (7) for silver and seven for gold. And now it is up to you. But many other “recipe” we will encounter. And other weights will be put before your eager eyes.
- See Atalanta Fugiens & Terra Alba Foliata;
- See also Atalanta Fugiens & Mercurius Duplicatus ;
- See also Sun & Moon At the Turn of the First Millennium ;
- See also Basilius Valentinus, Salt, Azoth or Philosophers Gold? ;
- See also Kamala Jnana & Introduction to a Live Secret;
- Originally used term was fiunt or siunt. Very probably an error for “sunt”;
- See Dorneus & the Need for two Eagles;